Infrastructure & Measurement Methodes

ZAE Bayern has a wide range of measurement and characterization methods at its disposal.
We also offer these methods to external interested parties within the scope of contract research.


Synthesis and post-treatment
  • Sol-gel synthesis laboratory with laboratory microwave and drying cabinets
  • Autoclaves for supercritical drying, set-up for subcritical drying
  • Tube and chamber furnaces up to 1100 °:C for thermal processes in air and under protective gas or defined atmosphere, respectively
  • Chamber furnace for operation under non-oxidizing gases up to 1900 °C
Structural characterization
  • Scanning electron microscope with various detectors, EDX, electron beam lithography option, heating stage up to 1500 °C, tensile/compression module
  • Volumetric adsorption systems with micropore option and sample holder for in-situ dilatometric measurements with N2 (at 77 K) and other gases and vapours
  • Dynamic light scattering for particle size analysis of particles < 6 µm
  • Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for structural analysisin the range from 0.1 to 100 nm (small angle neutron scattering on request)
  • X-ray diffractometer
Characterization of water uptake and gas transport
  • Gravimetric determination of water absorption and water vapour diffusion
  • Climate chamber with balance for analysis of water vapour sorption kinetics of panels
  • Equipment for visual and dilatometric analysis of the behaviour of small porous samples during drying and adsorption processes (15 °C to 45 °C)
  • Gas permeation set-up for the characterisation of gas transport through open porous materials
  • Apparatus for determining solution diffusion in barrier layers and seals
Further analytics
  • Mobile gas analysis (mass spectrometer) for mass numbers up to 200 amu
  • System for determining the speed of sound or the Young's modulus via ultrasonic run time measurements
  • Electrical and electrochemical parameters see ENERGY STORAGE

Dr. Gudrun Reichenauer
+49 931 70564-328

Applied IR Metrology

Measurement of infrared-optical properties

  • Emissivity, absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity
  • Extinction coefficient, scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient and albedo
  • Radiative thermal conductivity, heat transfer and thermal radiation
  • Refractive index and dielectric function (real part and imaginary part od each)
  • Temperature (non-contact temperature measurement using radiation thermometers and thermographic cameras)

Measurement range of the essential parameters for the infrared-optical characterisation

  • Wavelength from 0,5 µm to 500 µm
  • Temperature from -200 °C to 3000 °C
  • Angle from -90° to +90°
  • Pressure from 10-6 mbar to 10 bar

Measurement services and apparatus

  • Integrating sphere with FITR-spectrometer: determination of the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance plus the spectral and temperature dependent emittance and absorbance
  • FITR-spectrometer with reflection and transmission extension: determination of the directional-directional reflectance and transmittance at different incident angles and emergent angles
  • Emittance measurement apparatus (EMMA): determination of the emittance and absorbance at high temperatures
  • Black-Body Boundary Conditions (BBC) apparatus: determination of the transmittance and emittance plus the absorbance in the high temperature range
  • FTIR-spectrometer: determination of the complex index of refraction and the complex dielectric function
  • FTIR-spectrometer: determination of the extinction coefficient, the albedo and the radiative thermal conductivity plus the scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient
  • Radiation thermometer, blackbody radiator and fixed point radiator: contactless temperature measurement and calibration of radiation thermometers and infrared cameras
  • Thermographic camera or thermal imaging camera, spectrometer and radiation thermometer: quantitative and spectral detection of thermal radiation emitted by surfaces
  • Ellipsometer: measurement of the change of the polarization state of reflected electromagnetic radiation

Modelling and simulation

  • Simulation of the radiative exchange between surfaces
  • Modelling of the radiative transfer through materials plus the coupling between radiative thermal conduction and other heat transfer mechanism

Development and optimisation of materials

  • Support of partners and custoners in developing and optimising materials, components and systems with outstanding performance and customised infrared-optical properties

Relevant standards and guidelines

  • The measurements and analysis are performed according to national and international standards and guidelines, such as DIN EN 12898, ASTM E 1585-93, ASTM E 1980-11, VDI/VDE 3511, VDI/VDE 5585, etc.

Dr. Jochen Manara
+49 931 70564-346

Dipl.-Ing. Mariacarla Arduini
+49 931 70564-317

Thermal Analysis

  • Determination of the thermal resistance of flat and powdery samples by means of guarded hot plate technique: Several apparatuses, temperature range -180 to +600 °C, various atmospheres, gas pressure from 1e-5 to 1000 mbar, variable mechanical loading of the samples, single plate apparatus especially for materials from the construction and building sector.
  • Hot-wire method for direct measurement of thermal conductivity under various ambient conditions, climatic chamber from -40 to +180 °C, high-temperature furnace up to +1600 °C, inert gas up to +1400 °C, vacuum up to +900 °C, gas pressure from 1e-5 to 100000 mbar
  • Laserflash and Lightflash measuring apparatus for the determination of thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity in the temperature range from -200 to +1600 °C
  • Hotbox for determining the thermal resistance of complete facade elements and thermal insulation systems, evaluation of thermal bridges by thermography
  • Non-contact determination of thermal conductivity along fibres and in the plane of foils
  • Experimental investigation using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) from -90 to +1500 °C: Specific heat capacity, enthalpy, glass transition temperature
  • Dilatometer to determine the coefficient of expansion from +40 to +1600 °C
  • Heating microscope for the determination of contact angles, transient observation of sintering, flow and melting processes up to +1350 °C
  • Differential thermal analysis / thermogravimetry (STA) for the determination of the heat of reactions and mass losses from +40 to +1600 °C

Dipl.-Phys. Frank Hemberger
+49 931 70564-326

Dipl.-Phys. Stephan Vidi
+49 931 70564-350

Energy-optimised Building

Determination of material data
  • Determination of the spectral optical properties in the solar spectral range (directional-directional, directional-hemispherical and diffuse transmittance, reflectance and absorption coefficient, incident angle-dependent transmittance and reflectance)
  • Spectral and temperature-dependent emittance
  • Thermal properties of materials
  • Calculation of values according to various standards (e.g. mean values according to EN 410, total energy transmittance according to EN 13363-2, solar reflectance index (SRI) according to ASTM E-1980, ...)
  • Characterization of building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)
  • Development of individual solutions
Examination of components and systems
  • Characterization of glazing (U-value, degree of gas filling, pane thickness, total solar energy transmittance)
  • Test of evacuated components (U-value, thermal stress, tightness, ageing)
  • Thermal test bench for determining the mechanical stability of glazing and glass composite elements
  • Test façade and original size measuring rooms for the characterization of building components under real conditions or defined boundary conditions
  • Simultaneous acquisition of measured variables (e.g. room temperature, humidity) and user comfort in buildings
  • Heliostatic outdoor measuring stand for characterization of glazing systems (e.g. total energy transmittance) or PV modules (thermal and electrical behavior)
  • Indoor solar simulator for determining the total energy transmittance (g-value) and the thermal behaviour of façade systems
  • Laboratory facilities for the thermal characterization of building components and systems with phase change materials (PCM)
  • Thermally high-resolution IR camera for thermal bridge analysis and thermal quality control of heating/cooling systems and entire facades
  • Hot-Box-Apparatus for determining the thermal transmittance (U-value) of windows and façade elements
  • Monitoring of data relevant to buildings (e.g. temperatures, humidity, illuminance, luminance, heat flows, flow velocity, presence), permanently or temporarily with mobile measurement technology.
Software (commercial and in-house development)
  • TRNSYS: Dynamic building and system simulation
  • ESP-r: Dynamic Building Simulation and comfort analysis
  • Energy Plus, Design Builder
  • HEAT: Finite Element Software for simulation of heat flows in components (e.g. thermal bridges)
  • WUFI: Calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport in building components
  • RADIANCE: Backward ray tracing to simulate brightness distribution in rooms, to determine the efficiency of daylight and sun protection systems and to render photorealistic images.
  • Versatile building simulation program DynGebSim (in-house development)
  • RAPASYS (in-house development for fast automated execution of many building simulations)

Dipl.-Phys. Stephan Weismann
+49 931 70564-338

Dr. Bastian Büttner
+49 931 70564-231

Solar Hybrid Systems

  • UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer for the determination of solar-optical material properties such as transmission, reflection, etc.
  • Light scattering apparatus for determining the angle-dependent scattering behaviour
  • Hot-Box for determining the heat transfer of complete windows and façade elements
  • g-value external measuring facility for determining the total energy transmittance of glazing and sun protection systems;
  • I-V characterization of PV modules or BIPV elements in the external measuring facility (angle-dependent)
  • Solar simulator (indoor) to determine the total energy transmittance (g-value) and the thermal behaviour of façade systems, as well as the electrical characteristic data
  • Thermal load test facility for determining the thermomechanical stability of glazing and glass composite elements
  • Project-specific special measuring stands
  • Laboratory test facilities for thermal characterization of components and systems with phase change materials (PCM)
  • IR camera for thermal quality control of heating/cooling systems and entire facades
  • 1:1 measuring rooms (single and twin rooms) for thermal characterization of building components under real conditions or with dummies as thermal load
  • Building simulation software for thermal and lighting building simulation (DesignBuilder, ESP-r, TRNSYS, Radiance, EnergyPlus, WuFi)

Dr. Andreas Baumann
+49 931 70564-342

Dipl.-Ing. Constantin Römer
+49 931 70564-321

ZAE Bayern

We work at the interface between knowledge-based basic research and applied industrial research. Under the motto "Excellent Energy Research - Excellent Implementation", we realize complete innovation packages that build on synergies between generation, storage and efficiency measures.